But that conclusion would be too hasty. Irigaray aspires p. Irigaray rejects that valuation of reciprocity, as we see from her alternative vision of ideal relationships between sexed individuals in I Love to You , one of the books where she engages with Hegel most extensively. For Hegel, though, we ultimately must recognize one another as agents and, instead of partitioning body and agency unequally between us, we must recognize that we are all embodied agents. Irigaray agrees.
But she asks: must we not, then, all accept that we are sexually embodied? Moreover, as subjects, we are our bodies. My sexed embodiment does not sit idly by while I act, feel, think, and so on; my embodiment inevitably qualifies and affects the mode of my subjectivity. If I, a woman, am relating in some way to a man not necessarily romantically—we might, say, be in intellectual or political dialogue , I cannot rightly assume that he will make toward me the same subjective movements that I make toward him.
Yet, Irigaray thinks, I do tend to assume that the sexed other will relate to me as I do to him: I project my own form of subjectivity upon everyone else. Instead, I should cultivate my ability to be open to the other however he or she may manifest him- or herself—an attitude of wonder, as Irigaray sometimes puts it.
Overall, for Irigaray, each sexed individual should perform upon him- or herself a negating movement—negating his or his propensity to assimilate the other sex. I do not try to transcend the other; instead I acknowledge that he or she transcends me.
First, she envisages each sex exercising negativity upon itself. To be sure, she anticipates that each sex will carry out that exercise differently. But second, Irigaray explicitly states that each sex is to recognize the other as irreducibly different. Recognition is the way for us to value difference in its own right and as irreducibly real.
This is indicative that existential-Hegelianism remains important for French thought after post-structuralism—not only as a foil against which post-structuralists define themselves, but also positively, as a source of ideas that continue to inform. To be sure, post-structuralist insights into the value and ontological reality of difference pose problems for anyone who would endorse existential-Hegelian ideas wholesale.
But we should not reject those ideas wholesale either.
Kojève, Alexandre (1902–68)
Existential-Hegelian ideas about the human need for recognition, and how distortions in recognition are constitutive of harmful sexual and racial hierarchies, remain an inescapable starting point for thinking critically about these hierarchies and how we might overcome them. Badiou, Alain. Being and Event , translated by Oliver Feltham. London: Continuum, Find this resource:. Bauer, Nancy. Simone de Beauvoir, Philosophy and Feminism. New York: Columbia University Press, Baugh, Bruce. French Hegel: From Surrealism to Postmodernism. New York: Routledge, Beauvoir, Simone de.
The Second Sex , translated by H. London: Picador, Butler, Judith. Deleuze, Gilles. Difference and Repetition , translated by Paul Patton.
Fanon, Frantz. New York: Grove, The Wretched of the Earth , translated by Constance Farringdon. New York: Grove Press, Foucault, Michel. Sheridan Smith. New York: Pantheon, , — Fraser, Nancy. Fry, Christopher M. Sartre and Hegel.
Knowing and history : appropriations of Hegel in twentieth-century France
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New York: Basic Books, Kruks, Sonia. University Park: Penn State Press, , 79— Lundgren-Gothlin, Eva. London: Athlone, Macey, David. Frantz Fanon: A Biography. London: Verso, Malabou, Catherine. Translated by Sebastian Rand. New York: Fordham University Press, Morrison, Toni. The Bluest Eye. New York: Vintage, Rockmore, Tom. New York: Bloomsbury, , — Roth, Michael S.
Life, death and (inter)subjectivity: realism and recognition in continental feminism | SpringerLink
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London: Routledge, No Exit and Three Other Plays. Stone, Alison. Luce Irigaray and the Philosophy of Sexual Difference. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Throughout this chapter translations from French or German are sometimes amended without special notice. His justification is that absolute knowledge depends on universal human history, the building-blocks of which are human agents; and their fundamental character is set out in Chapter IV and IVA Introduction , Surprisingly, and clearly falsely given the extensive discussion of Hegel in Being and Nothingness , Sartre subsequently claimed to have seriously studied Hegel only in the late s.
My shame embodies my tacit judgement that I am more than my appearance, to which I therefore ought not to be reduced as I have been ibid. Thus, for Hegel, self-consciousness already has freedom unity-with-itself-in-otherness but this only becomes so for it, i. I thank Dean Moyar for pointing this out to me. In this way each subject opens itself to the look while looking back as well.
Fanon stresses more how central agency is to the human condition. Drawing on his experiences as a teacher and academic leader, he speaks of living with the past without being dominated by it. Roth rules! A compulsive peeper into the corners of the historical past, he is the visual historian's historian.